Supplements to Reduce Skin Aging

30 January 2023

What is skin aging and how does it happen?

Skin aging is a natural process that occurs as we get older. The most prominent sign of skin aging is the appearance and deepening of wrinkles, as the skin becomes less elastic and more fragile. Production of natural oils from the middle later of skin (dermis) decreases, drying the skin and making it appear more wrinkled. Fat in the bottom layer of skin (hypodermis) diminishes, causing loose, saggy skin and more-pronounced lines and crevices.


Along with age, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light also contributes to wrinkle formation, by breaking down the skin’s connective tissue — collagen and elastin fibres, which lie in the dermis. Collagen fibres provide support while elastin fibres provide flexibility and strength. Without them, the skin loses flexibility and strength and begin to sag and wrinkle.

The three layers of skin on top of muscle tissue. The dermis contains oil glands, collagen and elastin fibres, while the subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) contains fat [2].

Ingredients that reduce skin aging

In this article, 2 different ingredients, C. rabens and GOS will be introduced. These ingredients can be added to beauty supplements to maintain skin beauty and health, and reduce wrinkles that are the most prominent sign of skin aging.  

Introducing Crassocephalum rabens

Crassocephalum rabens is a common herb conventionally used to treat inflammation-related syndromes in Taiwan. Studies have shown that C. rabens possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities, contributed by the prominent active compound in C. rabens, a phytogalactolipid 1,2-di-O-linolenoyl-3-O-β-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (dLGG). Greenyn Biotechnology’s RabenWhite® contains the patented active compound CRK774TM, a standardised form of dLGG.

Mechanism of Action


C. rabens contributes to skin improvement in two ways through a single mechanism, which is the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, a key enzyme that causes inflammation. As COX-2 increases tyrosinase activity, the inhibition of COX-2 expression reduces tyrosinase activity, which in turn reduces melanin production. This leads to depigmentation, where the skin appears whiter and brighter.


COX-2 has also been shown to activate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) , also known as collagenases, a family of enzymes that break down peptide bonds in collagen and degrades it . With the inhibition of COX-2 by C. rabens, MMP activity is inhibited, hence decreasing wrinkle formation and collagen degradation.

Clinical Study

The Ameliorating Effect of Crassocephalum rabens (Asteraceae) Extract on Skin Aging was studied by the R&D team at Greenyn Biotechnology. After 4 weeks of treatment with C. rabens, participants in the treatment group showed improvement in skin wrinkles, brightness, collagen content and UV spots as compared to participants in the placebo group.

 

Introducing: Galacto-oligosaccharides

Galacto-oligosaccharides, or GOS in short, are non-digestible prebiotics composed of three to 10 molecules of galactose and glucose, produced commercially from lactose by β-galactosidase. GOS are known to promote digestive and immune health, as they pass undigested into the colon for beneficial gut bacteria to ferment them, the bacteria themselves proliferating and bringing benefits.


While prebiotics like GOS are primarily known for improving gut health, they also contribute to skin health through the growth of beneficial intestinal microbial flora. BeautyOLIGO® is a high purity galacto-oligosaccharide that improves intestinal regulation, strengthens the immune system and promotes biological activity. BeautyOLIGO® has also been verified to have skin improvement effects through animal tests and clinical demonstration.

Mechanism of Action

Diet factors can cause skin troubles such as atopy, acne, dryness and consequent developing of wrinkles, by promoting rapid absorption of intestinal toxins produced by intestinal bad bacteria into intestinal mucosa, and transferring and accumulating them into the skin. BeautyOLIGO® strengthens the immune system by increasing intestinal beneficial bacteria, improve mineral absorption and eliminate toxins, which results in improvement of skin troubles and atopic disease by adjusting changes in cytokines, signaling materials controlling the body’s defense system.


Clinical Study

In the study Dietary galacto-oligosaccharides improve skin health: A randomized double blind clinical trial, the GOS group showed significantly greater increase in corneometer (measures hydration level of the skin) values from baseline to week 12, compared to the control group. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL), which refers to the water loss through the skin, was also reduced significantly after 12 weeks of GOS treatment. In addition, the wrinkle area was decreased significantly after 8 weeks of GOS ingestion. Meanwhile, the study of the Inhibitory Effect of Galactooligosaccharide on Skin Pigmentation showed that treatment with GOS reduced both melanin (skin pigment) index and erythema (redness of skin) index, hence GOS played a role in inhibiting skin pigmentation.

The table above shows the results of measurements, where the intake of BeautyOLIGO® improved water retention in skin and reduced skin pigmentation, thereby verifying the effects of moisture retention, whitening and erythema reduction.


If you are looking for anti-aging ingredients for your beauty supplements, try RabenWhite® or BeautyOLIGO®! Contact us at sales@maha.asia for further information regarding the product and quotation.

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References:


Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2021, October 9). Wrinkles. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved January 17, 2023, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/wrinkles/symptoms-causes/syc-20354927

Skin: Layers, structure and function. Cleveland Clinic. (n.d.). Retrieved January 17, 2023, from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/10978-skin

S. National Library of Medicine. (n.d.). Aging changes in Skin: Medlineplus medical encyclopedia. MedlinePlus. Retrieved January 17, 2023, from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004014.htm

Larsen, E. and Christensen, L.P. (2007). Common vegetables and fruits as a source of 1,2-di-O-?-linolenoyl-3-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol, a potential anti-inflammatory and antitumor agent. Journal of Food Lipids, 14(3), 272–279. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2007.00085.x

Mrena, J. (2006). MMP-2 but not MMP-9 associated with COX-2 and survival in Gastric cancer. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 59(6), 618–623. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.2005.033761

Philips, N., Auler, S., Hugo, R., & Gonzalez, S. (2011). Beneficial regulation of matrix metalloproteinases for skin health. Enzyme Research, 2011, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/427285

Suh, M. G., Bae, G. Y., Jo, K., Kim, J. M., Hong, K.-B., & Suh, H. J. (2020). Photoprotective Effect of Dietary Galacto-Oligosaccharide (GOS) in Hairless Mice via Regulation of the MAPK Signaling Pathway. Molecules, 25(7), 1679. MDPI AG. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071679

Niittynen, L., Kajander, K., & Korpela, R. (2007). Galacto-oligosaccharides and bowel function. Scandinavian Journal of Food and Nutrition, 51(2), 62–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482970701414596

Suh, M. G., Hong, Y. H., Jung, E. Y., & Suh, H. J. (2019). Inhibitory Effect of Galactooligosaccharide on Skin Pigmentation. Preventive nutrition and food science, 24(3), 321–326. https://doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2019.24.3.321

Hong, K.-B., Jeong, M., Han, K. S., Hwan Kim, J., Park, Y., & Suh, H. J. (2015). Photoprotective effects of galacto-oligosaccharide and/or bifidobacterium longum supplementation against skin damage induced by ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 66(8), 923–930. https://doi.org/10.3109/09637486.2015.1088823

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